Final Review Guide

Test Review:

Robert deleted a bunch of the original titles in creating his study guide. For all the original topics, see bottom.

  1. Pascal Aspired to write: Write a work that world refute both dogmatism (which he saw epitomized by the Jesuits) and skepticism. Pascal considered the Jesuits’ casuistry (arguments designed to minimize and excuse sinful acts) a distortion of Christian teaching.
  2. Epicycle: The planet moved uniformly about a small circle (an epicycle-so I am guessing that it is a small circle). The center if the epicycle moved uniformly about a larger circle.
  3. Pro-Copernican finding of Galileo result: The book was designed to defend the physical truthfulness of Copernicanism. Favored the older system, appeared slow-witted and those voices presented the views of pope urban.
  4. Pensees: Pascal’s views on the matter in piecemeal fashion in a provocative collection of reflections on human king and religion published posthumously.
  5. Clergy and Witch hunts: Only Clergy are able to practice magic, that of holy sacrament and exorcism of demons. This fear of demon allows them to have moral authority. They have legitimate power from god.
  6. Tycho Brahe: Took major step toward the concept of sun-center system. He believed that the other planets revolve the sun but the sun and moon revolve around Earth. Lots of naked-eye observation.
  7. Elderly women and widows were the one that was most targeted during the witch hunts because they feared the “vagina”. Women threaten to break out from male control. Older women were dependent on the social group/community. Midwives were usually older woman/widows and doctors wanted that job and they were also blamed for newborns death.
  8. Newton’s major scientific question: How the planets and heavenly bodies moved in an orderly fashion. Newton addressed this and established a basic that endured for centuries. Inertial applied to bodies both at rest and in motion, objects are moved through gravity. If you want to learn more about gravity, talk to Mr. Educator.
  9. Existence of God and Descartes: Presence of God is important to Descartes b/c God guaranteed the correctness of clear and distinct ideas (capital T truth anyone?). Since God was not a deceiver, the ideas of God-given reason could not be false.
  10. Descartes and reason: Descartes said he would doubt everything except those propositions about which he could have clear and distinct ideas. This approach rejected all forms of intellectual authority except the conviction of his own reason. ….Divide existing thing into two basic categories: Thinking things and things occupying space—mind and body, respectively. Thinking was the defining quality of the mind and extension was the defineing quality of material bodies.
  11. Women in 18: Women were excluded from the pursuit of natural knowledge since it was only a male vocation.
  12. Members of scientific societies: Royal Society of London was founded in 1660 whose members followed Bacon paths. Many other societies were founded to provide organization that met regularly to hear papers and observe experiments. They wanted the religion and political arguments out of the argument of science.
  13. Advanced thinkers: criticized the universities b/c the universities tries to preserve traditions. Locke, Hobbes, and others were critical with their schools and educations.
  14. Francis Bacon: father of empiricism and experimentation in science. Believed that human knowledge should produce useful results rather then words.
  15. Goal of science was to produce something useful. Urge others to go out on their own and search of new understanding of nature. Scholastic paids to much attention to tradtion.
  16. Divide existing thing into two basic categories: Thinking things and things occupying space—mind and body, respectively. Thinking was the defining quality of the mind and extension was the defineing quality of material bodies. Human reason can understand the world of extension (which is material bodies…the world)
  17. Kepler discovered to keep the sun at the center of things, he had to abandon the circular components of Copernicus model. The mathematical relationships that ernerge from his consideration of Brahe’s observations suggested that the motions of the planets were elliptical. He solved the problem with Copernicus sun-centered universe with Brahe’s empirical data.
  18. God has placed the world as a machine that would function automatically. The drive to a mechanical understanding of nature also meant that the language of science and of natural philosophy would become largelt that of mathematics. Natural knowledge become the path toward the physical improvement of human beings through their ability to command the processes of nature.
  19. Natural Philosophy were often reexamining and rethinking theories abd data from the acient world and the late middle ages. The scientific rev was a slow process and complex movement with many false starts and brilliant people suggesting wrong as well as useful ideas. Sci rev involved a reapporpriation of older knowledge as well as new discoveries.
  20. Galileo popularized the Copernican system and articulated the concept of a universe subject to mathematical laws. The universe was rational.
  21. Cunning folks: helped people cope with calamity. They provide consolation ad have people hope that magic could avert or undo natural calamities. They privded important service and help village life to keep functioning.
  22. Pascal believed that there are two essential truths in Christian religion: a loving god and human beings who are corrupt by nature and unworthy of God. Reason was too weak to resolve the problems of human nature, it should drive those who truly heeded it to faith in God. We are all corrupted, so we should all look toward god…wow like I never heard that before.
  23. Galileo proved with Dutch instrument, stars where none known to exist, mountains on moon, spots across the sun, and moons orbiting Jupiter. He showed that the heavens were more complex then it seem to be.
  24. The epicycles were smaller. The retrograde motion of the planets was now explained as a result of an optical illusion that arose because people were observing the planets from earth which was moving itself. The lendth of these revolutions made it easier to determine the order of the planets, and rank.
  25. 1830’s was when people started using scientist. Sci Rev did not involve any more than a few hundred of people who labored in separated studies and labs.
  26. Emergence of a new scientific worldview made it difficult to believe in the powers of witches. People no longer believed that words and thought could affect the world. Advances in medicines and insurance, people rely on themselves when face with clamity rather then supernaturals.
  27. Galileo wrote the Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, which defend the physical truthfulness of copernicanism. Also Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina: published his own views about how the scripture should be interpreted to accommodate the new science.
  28. Sci. Rev established new social institution to support the emerging scientific enterprise. New discovery in medicine, chemistry, and natural history, and astronomy.
  29. Pascal believe that it is a better bet to believe in God so that if he does Exist you wont get screwed. New science does not denied religion altogether or accept it. I cant find bunyan so I’m just assuming he is with Pascal and hates them too.
  30. Copernicus theory: was that earth was not the center of the universe.
  31. Only by entering into a particular king of political contract according to which they agreed to live in a commonwealth tightly ruled by a recognized soverign.
  32. Walpole pursued peace abroad and supported the status quo at home.
  33. Hohenzollerns? The ruling family was Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg.
  34. Political and economic in the west was far better off than in the east since they believed they were better than the west for some time. They were less advanced then western Europe.
  35. Required ottoman to surrender significant territory lying not at the edges but at the very heart of their empire in Europe to habsburgs, Poland, and venice.
  36. I don’t know. Walpole was in charge of the parliament like that one guy in france but he actually saved them. The French parliament had little power/experience after the death of Louis XIV. French court, could not legislate. Had a power to recog or not to recog the legality of an act or law by the monarch.
  37. House of common was neither a democrat nor representative. Members were elected from variet of units called borough.
  38. Paragmatic sanction was the way Charles II could leave his throne to his daughter Maria Theresa since he did not have a male heir.
  39. Louise XV rule was horrible. All of Louis XIV vices, non of his virtues.
  40. People can elect two members but if a powerful landed families in a county agreed to a candidate, there is no contest. House of common were wealthy nobles. Local municipal corp or council of onlu a dozen members were allowed to elect a member.
  41. Tories emphasize a strong monarchy, low taxes, and support of the Anglican church. Whigs supported the monarchy but parliament final decision.
  42. Rachel was an artist who specialized in depicting elaborate arrangements of flowers.
  43. Russia and Prussia achieved their new status of power b/c of the political decay and military defeat of Sweden, Poland, and the Ottoman empire.
  44. It was difficult to govern b/c Charles did not have an heir and he wanted to leave it to his daughter Maria and was allowed to but other countries sought to take advantage of that.
  45. Peter build his new capital to establish a central imperial court and to symbolized a new western orientation of Russia and his determination to hold position on the Baltic coast. He also built minarture version.
  46. Fleury succeeded in blocking the nobles powers, and giving France a break and tried to rebuild France’s finances. New industries enjoyed special privileges and raods and bridges were built.
  47. Netherlands loss William III and there was no political leadership. Disunity of the provinces made the economy decline.
  48. Robert wanted to expand the scope of the excise tax but many people hated it so he withdrew it. 489. Robert actually intervene when the price of stock soared and crashed. He adopted measures to honor the national debt. He basically saved them from a crash somehow.
  49. Russia invade Swedish territory for the Baltic, Charles XII led the Swedish against them and was successful for a bit and then he met the infamous Russian winter storm. Russia got what it wanted, Baltic coast.
  50. Whigs support the monarchy but wanted the Parliament to have final decision, favored urban cmmerical interest as well as landowners, and religious toleration toward protestant. Tories supported a strong monarchy, low taxes, and Anglican church.
  51. The powers that were waning were Sweden, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire, Netherlands, and Spain.
  52. Members were elected from variety of unites called boroughs. Some boroughs were large elections, and some had small elections. (like lots of people voting, not so many people voting)
  53. Leopold rallied Habsburg to resist the Ottoman and Louis XIV aggression and acgieved Ottoman recog over Hungary and conquered many lands to expand.
  54. Frederick was on the most effective Hohenzollerns. He established a very large army with a little population. He developed Prussian into another great power in Europe.
  55. Regulate the dress of the different classes remained on the books. Forbade persons in one class to wear clothes worn by other classes.
  56. The economy growth is the Industrial Revolution. Many new production demanded new skills and industrialization raised the standard of living and overcame poverty that most Europe lived.
  57. London grew 700k to 1m in 100years. Many of the cities grew in pop. Cities that few were already established and large cities but after 1750, new cities and older smaller one grew too. Ports and capitals were the one that few.
  58. He instituted crop rotation, using wheat, turnips, barley, and clover.
  59. Family economy was base of every family member working. The males and children are the one that usually works in the field unless they are urban artisan. The family is the one that benfit, not one.
  60. Lived a good life. London was the center of fashion. Anyone could rise up in the social ranks. Newspaper article was thriving. Lots of demands goods.
  61. Wife who’s family had a good land only had to carry water, those who are less fortunate, the wife had to work on the fields. Wife who’s husband works in the city, usually sells his stuff. To get a husband, they have to go to work for many years to get enough dowry. If they can afford it, they leave their new born to wet nurse.
  62. Bourgeoisie, merchants, bankers, professional people, tradespeople are the middle class. They aren’t extremely wealthy but still have money, like Jon.
  63. Local people from both the countryside and villages would steal the game and then sell it to the intermediaries called higglers.
  64. Tension arose 18th, involving issues of power sharing or access to political influence, rather than clashes over values or goals associated with class.
  65. Domestic, putting out, system of textile production, agents of urban textile merchants took wool or other unfinished fibers to the homes of peasants who spun it into thread, then wove it into a finished product and sell it.
  66. Revolted because they sought to reassert traditional rights against practices. Unfair pricing, onerous new or increased feudal dues, changes in methods of payment. Brutal overseer.
  67. Promised the serfs land of their own and freedom from their lords if they rebel.
  68. Were intedned to use land more rationally and to achieve greater commercial profits.
  69. The spinning Jenny, and Water frame help moved it into factories.
  70. It use burning coal as the source of power. First practical engine using steam power was invented by Thomas Newcomen. The piston was moved when the steam had been induced in the cylinder condensed, causing the piston to fall. It was large and inefficient in its use of energy, and can not be transported.
  71. The aristocratic manipulated the law to its own advantage, like English legislation on hunting. Only landownders had rights to hunt game.
  72. The plantation system was used so that that they don’t have to work. They use the African people as slaves to do their labor. It was an economic factor.
  73. Britain and France rivalry stretch all over the world. India is one of the areas. The trade of India and Asia figured only marginally in the economics of empire. Though Europe would love to get a hand in the markets over there.
  74. Held republican political ideas that had their intellectual roots in the most racidal thought of the puritan revolution. Regarded parliamentary tax as a mean of financing political corruption.
  75. Prussia and Great Britain signed the Convention of West. A defensive alliance aimed at preventing the entry of foreign troops into the germanies.
  76. Townshend duties were series of revenue act relating to colonial imports. These duties caused an uproar and was repealed except one on tea.
  77. The house of trade in Seville regulated all trade with the New world. The casa was the most influential institution of the Spanish empire.
  78. He went into the war to strike against a conspiracy by sacony, Austria, and France to destroy Pussian power. After this war, he was able to fend off their attacks and was called Frederick the great.
  79. Slave trade was a continous existence in the Mediterranean world. With people moving to the new world, slave trade moved across the atlantic. The Spanish and Portuguese imported African slaves from Central West Africa in Senegambia. Euro slave trade don’t trade with any tribes. They trade with tribes that have conflicts and are willing to capture others African from different region for them.
  80. Other countries want to break the monopoly of other countries’ colonies. 18th c is called “golden age of smugglers”
  81. He wanted an alliance with France to help dismember Prussia, and the convention of wesminster helped made it possible. Kaunitz succeeded in making France fight to restore Austrian supremacy.
  82. Robert Jenkins ears being cut off helped fuse a war between Britain and Spain. The British merchant put pressure on the Parliament ro relieve Spanish intervention in their trade, and the war lasted until 1815.
  83. IT was a chartered companies that enjoyed a legal monopoly. It was the English institution.
  84. Creoles were people of European descent born in the Spanish colonies.
  85. Women were excluded from the scientific revolution. Only a few were able to study it or had a chance to study it. Women who associated with artisan craft had freedom to pursue it and those who noble standing.
  86. The emerging idea that genuinely new knowledge about nature and human kind could be discovered. Like recovery of Aristotle.
  87. Locke’s family had puritan sympathies. Shaftesbury was a close associate and he organized an unsuccessful rebellion against Charles which made them flee. He inspired the Americans with his ideas.
  88. Hobbes believes that human in their state of nature was inevitable conflict which neither safety, security, nor any final authority existed. They were constantly haunted by fear of destruction and death. They escape by entering a social contract.
  89. He was influenced by Jansenists, since his sister was amember of the Jansenist.
  90. Vermeer painted them as pendants, meant to hang beside each other and to give meanting to each other. Since astronomy and geography was closely related. The Dutch freedon of the press allowed the Netherlands to become the center for the publication of books that carried the new knowledge of astronomy, optics, and geography.
  91. His attitude to religion is not supportive nor destructive. Religion was another way to find the truth and science was also the same way.
  92. It was flawed but right that it was a sun center based universe. Had advantages over ancient models. Could rank them in term of distance from the sun.
  93. John lock believed that people enter a social contract to protect life, liberty, and property and people had the right to over throws people who does not protect those rights. Government exist to preserve property, not to make religious decision for its citizens.
  94. 1687 The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, known as latin title: Principia Mathematica.
  95. Liberum veto, whereby the staunch opposition of any single member, who might have been bribed by a foreign power could require the body to disband. Sejm was the legislative body called diet.
  96. Prussia is the army. I don’t know. Wtf. Prussian is the same.
  97. Louis XV’s uncle, the duke of Orleans, became the regent and remained so until his death in 1720.
  98. He took the separated states and combined them together. He broke the nobles powers and created his on central power. Without a strong military or economy, he build it from the ground up himself by taxing.
  99. The answer is D none of the above. If anyone gets this wrong, I’m killing you, or Mrs. Munro for providing us the wrong answer.
  100. OMG I REACHED 100. 100words on the wall, 100words, study one and pass one around!! Anyway, George 1 supported the Whigs, who support the monarchy but powers to the parliament. Urban commercial interest, and religious toleration. He gave Walpole his full confidence.
  101. Peter the great created his new capital city of St. Petersburg where the imperial court is located and also created miniature version of it through Russia.
  102. The steam engine allow industrialization to grow on itself and expand into another area. The engine had unlimited source of power that could do things no other living thing can. This created many factories that needed people and more jobs.
  103. London was the biggest city In the 18th b/c of the ind. Rev.
  104. Since the populations started to grow, bread and price of grand was rising. This gave landlords a chance to improve their incomes and liftstyles. To achieve that, they started a series of innovation in farm production which will improve their income even more.
  105. The lower class was a potentially violent element in society, a potential threat to property, and in their poverty, a drain on national resources.
  106. To move up I nthe chain? To have a good harvest year b/c a poor harvest would raise the price of food. They wanted to buy more goods to their incomes permitted / copy the consumption of the middle class.
  107. Serfs in Russia was worst off. There are merely an economic commodities. They are demanded as many as six days a week of labor. Serfs in Russia is slavery.
  108. Trade with America after independence actually increased. Many Britain resent the mismanagement of America.
  109. Casa de Contratacion-The house of trade.
  110. John Wilkes published a newspaper called The North Briton, and he criticized Lord Bute’s handling of the peace nehotiations with France. He was arrested and had to flee. He came back for election was the house did not seat him. This cause concern over in the U.s b/c they saw GIII as a tyrant and the house of common as corrupt.
  111. Associated movement. Property owners, or freeholders, of Yorkshire met in a mass meeting to demand rather morderate changes to the corrupt system of parliamentary elections. It was a popular attempt to establish an extralegal institution to reform the gov.
  112. Earth is the center of the earth. What most writers assumed.
  113. Maria was a wife-and-husband astronomy team (wish I have a wife who would team up with me in looking up in the stars.). She was an assistant and she actually found a comet but was not credit to her until 1930. When her husband died, she applied for his job but was denied b/c of her gender even though she could do the job with skillz.
  114. Margaret was privately tutored. She made a significant contributions to the scientific literature. Her most important work were Observations upon Experimental Philosophy, and Grounds of Natural Philsophy. Only woman to visit a meeting of the Royal Socierty of London. (I hope she was hot)
  115. Tories support a strong monarchy, low taxes for landowners, and support of the Anglican Church. Opened channels of communication with the Stuart Pretender b/c they were scared of the Whigs. Srsly, damn pansies.
  116. Followed by anarchy and civil war known as the “Time of Troubles”. Hopes to restore stability, elected Michael Romanoc as tsar.
  117. Those who purchased titles were called “of the robe”.
  118. British nobility was very wealthy and owned about one-fourth the land in the country. c. The French nobility had two types, those who derived from military service or those who had bought it/serving in the bueraucracy. They were also separated from those who support the royal court and those who did not. They were exempt from many taxes. (Straight from my notes!!!!!)…I think.
  119. The reason to Euro dominance was because of the technological supremacy related to naval power and gunpowder. Ships and guns allowed Euro to exercise their will.
  120. Every object in the universe affected every other object through gravity. So one object affect the other.
  121. Many though the Ottomans result in Vienna was an overreach of power but it was acutally a decline in power.
  122. Corvee was forced labor, seigneur could require a certain number of days each year of the peasants. Feudal dues called banalities.
  123. India
  124. Guards of the Moscow garrison.
  125. LAST ONE BITCHES. Everyone in the family has to work, DUH. How the hell you expect for one to mope around all day when the rest of the family is working and expect to eat. Even the baby is working. It poops on the ground to give the dirt some minerals. Everyone works for the production of the family, not themselves…Shawn…

  1. Pascal aspired to write 469 - A work that would refute both Dogmatism (which he saw epitomized by the Jesuits) and skepticism. Pascal considered the Jesuits casuistry (arguments designed to minimize and excuse sinful acts) a distortion of Christian teaching.
  2. Epicycle 451 - Largely confusing concept about why, with the earth at the center of the universe, other planets and stars moved the way they did. Planets moved in small circles while they were rotating around the earth.
  3. Pro-Copernican findings of Galileo result 467 - At this point in time, the Roman Catholic Church has reserved the right of interpretation of scripture, to avoid being bad-mouthed by the Protestants. Copernicus' book is banned, and Galileo makes an agreement with the church that he can write about Copernicus if he only says it is possible, and not that it is so. However years later, with a new pope on his side, he writes exactly that it is so, what he said he wouldn't. Later, the pope gets mad at him for making him look bad in the book, and accuses him of breaking the agreement. He is imprisoned. The rest is duh.
  4. Pensees 469 - Pascal's work saying that Atheists and Deists were stupid.
  5. Clergy and Witch hunts 473 - Old women who couldn't support themselves said they were witches and such to get money and attention. All of a sudden clergy started pointing fingers at them. Magic outside of the church was the devil. Burn them.
  6. Tycho Brahe 452 – Did not embrace Copernicus’s view of universe. He thought Earth was center of universe and sun revolved around Earth, but plants revolved around sun. He collected a lot of astronomical info.
  7. Elderly women and widows 473 – Couldn’t support themselves in villages. Became midwives and performed magic through the devil.
  8. Newton’s major scientific question 454 – Newton is the father of modern physics with his 3 laws of motions and his book Pricipia Mathematica. He was a genius.
  9. Existence of God and Descartes 457 – “Rational Deduction” published Discourse on Method. He deduced existence of God who was not a deceiver. Divided things into two categories. Mind and Body.
  10. Descartes and reason 457 – Didn’t like empirical observation, but deduction
  11. women in 18th c 466 – Women are never important in history. Never.
  12. members of scientific societies 463 – Got together and did experiments, read papers. (Come back)
  13. Advanced thinkers 17thc 463
  14. Francis Bacon 455- He was an englishman who almost had universal accomplishment. He was a lawyer, high royal official, author of histories, moral essays, and philosophical discourses. He was regarded as the father of empiricism and of experimentation in science. He wasn't a natural philosopher and a lot of his reputation wasn't earned. His most regarded accomplishment was setting an intellectual tone and helping create a climate conductive to scientific work.
  15. Bacon and goal of science 455- He attacked the scholastic belief that the most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation as well as the scholastic reverence for authority in intellectual life. He believed that comtemporaries should strike out on their own in search of a new understanding of nature. He wanted 17th Century Europeans to have confidence in themselves and their own abilities rather than in people/methods of the past. He also believed that human knowledge should produce useful results with deeds rather than words and that knowledge of nature be enlistsed to improve the human condition.
  16. Descartes and human reason 457
  17. Johannes Kepler planets and Brahe’s observations 453 - Kepler used Tyco Brahe's notes and observations (done by eye, I believe..) to develop his ever-famous "Laws of Planetary Motion", stating things such as the shape of orbits, the speed, etc. (Just going off my own knowledge, don't know exactly what the book says).
  18. Sci Rev 455
  19. Natural Philosophy and sci rev formality 450
  20. Galileo and Copernican system 454
  21. Cunning folk 472- Provided consolation and gave people hope that magic could avert or undo natural calamities and provided an important service which helped the village life to keep functioning.
  22. Blaise Pascal and humankind’s corruption 469
  23. Galileo proved 453- He proved that there were stars, mountains on the moon, spots moving across the sun, and moons orbiting Jupiter from using the Dutch telescope pointing to the heavens. He also argued the phases of Venus.
  24. Advantages of Copernican system 451 - Copernican system is how our solar system works. Planets rotate, revolve, and are not perfectly circular in rotation.
  25. Sci Rev and # involved 450
  26. Witch hunts end 17th c 473
  27. Galileo wrote 467- Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina(1615), On The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems(1632)
  28. Sci Rev new institutions and new discoveries 450
  29. Rejected new science Pascal and Bunyan 469
  30. Copernicus theory 450 - Heliocentrism. Based his theory off the works (both astronomical and mathematic) of several more ancient astronomers, whom he did not cite in fear of being deemed un-Christian (see: Galileo).
  31. Hobbes and Commonwealth 460
  32. Robert Walpole political Philosophy 487
  33. Prussian Ruling Family 497
  34. Pol and Econ situations in West vs Central/East Europe 18th c 490
  35. Treaty of Carlowitz 1699 495- Defeated Ottomans negotiated this Treaty of Carlowitz to require European states and Russia to surrender significant territory lying not at the edges but at the very heart of their empire in Europe, including most of Hungary, to the Habsburgs, Poland, and Venice. This treaty meant not only the loss of territory but also of the revenue the Ottomans had long drawn from those regions.
  36. French Parliaments 487
  37. Characteristics of House of Commons 18thc 487- It was neither a democratic nor a representative body. Each of the countries into which Britain was divided elected two members. If more powerful landed families in a country agreed on the candidates, there was no contest. Most members were elected from a variety of units called boroughs. Through proper electoral management, which involved favors to the electors, the House of Commons could be controlled.
  38. Pragmatic Sanction and Maria Theresa 497
  39. Reign of Louis XV in general terms 486
  40. Political groupings in Parliament 487
  41. Which party ideas 487
  42. Rachel Ruysch specialty 485
  43. Prussia and Russia rise based on decline of 491
  44. Hapsburg holding difficult to govern 497
  45. Peter the Great goal internal reform 504
  46. Cardinal Fleury success 486- Loyally and effectively served the French monarchy. Worked to block the nobility's undue influence. He was able to get part of the debt of France repudiated. New industries enjoying special privileges were established and roads and bridges built. The nation prospered but Fluery could never draw sufficient tax revenues to put the state on a stable financial footing.
  47. Decline of Dutch 484
  48. Robert Walpole averts economic disaster 489
  49. Great Northern War between 492
  50. Difference between Whigs and Tories 487
  51. Powers waning in late 17th early 18th in general were 481
  52. Borough 488- Various units in Great Britain where the members for the House of Commons were elected.
  53. Leopold I 497
  54. Frederick William I 500
  55. Sumptuary Laws 514
  56. Industrialization in general 529
  57. Urban Development increase 539
  58. Charles Turnip Townsend instituted 527
  59. Family Economy 522
  60. Characteristics of British society in 18th c. 534
  61. preindustrial Europe and Wife 524
  62. Middle Class (who?) 540
  63. Higgler 519
  64. Growing tensions between aristo and mc 542
  65. Domestic or putting out system 532
  66. Peasant rebellions why? 519
  67. Emelyan Pugachev 518
  68. Enclosure Movement characteristics 528
  69. Invention that moves textile manufacturing into factories 532
  70. Practical steam engine 533
  71. Aristocratic domination in 18thc 519
  72. Plantation system Why? 560
  73. Trade with India and asia in economies of Fr and BR 554
  74. Political ideals and demands of the Americas roots 574
  75. Convention of Westminster in 1756 570
  76. Townshend duties 573
  77. Casa de contradiction responsibility 556
  78. 7 yrs war Frederick II 570
  79. European Slave Trade 560
  80. Rivalries between mercantilists… 18thc term 554
  81. Count Wenzel Anton Kaunitz 569
  82. Jenkins Ear important? 568
  83. East India Company 554 - Branded pirates, including Captain Jack Sparrow. Apparently also makes Paprika, among other assorted spices (Not serious, was bored.).
  84. Creoles 560
  85. Women and Scientific Revolution 464- Women were long excluded from participating in most intellectual life and also excluded from working in the emerging natural philosophy. Women could and did exercise much influence over princely courts where natural philosophys sought patronage but they usually didn't determine those patronage decisions or benefit from them. There were virtually no social spaces that might have permitted women easily to pursue science. A few isolated women from two different social settings did manage to engage in the new scientific activity—noblewomen and women from the artisan class but could only do so through their husbands or other men in their families.
  86. Expansion of Science and features 462
  87. John Locke inspired 461
  88. Thomas Hobbes and state of nature 459
  89. Pascal influenced by 469
  90. Jan Vermeer and paintings 478
  91. Newton’s attitude toward religion 469 - Newton wrote a lot on religion, but did not believe it was as clear-cut and blind-faith as most made it out to be. He said the world, though religious, was a place that could be understood, should not be left up to the great unknown or credited to GOD.
  92. Copernicus’ new system 451 - Heliocentrism. I'm getting a feeling of repetition here.
  93. John Locke belief 462 - Um, I know Locke is the sociologist who states that a baby is a blank sheet of paper, born with no influence personality-wise, and that experience is the ONLY thing that shapes who one is.
  94. Newton wrote 454 - About religion more so than he ever did astronomy. Developed some ideas on physics, and gravity.. um.. this question seems vague and quite open ended. PRICIPIA MATHEMATICA, was the title of his book. My mistake. I get it now.
  95. Polish Diet and liberum veto 496
  96. Prussian is the same
  97. Regent after Louis XIV 485
  98. Frederick William Elector 498
  99. Diet 495 (This one is stupid… it is D none of the above)
  100. George I and Politics 504# Peter the Great capital 504
  101. steam engine urbanization and industrialization 533
  102. 18th c biggest city 539
  103. Landlords and technology… factors to adopt it 526
  104. MC fear of lower 542
  105. goal of peasant society 526
  106. Russian serfs 518
  107. Post Rev. War trade between BR and US 577
  108. Spanish port for US trade 556
  109. John Wilkes affair 575
  110. Association Movement 577
  111. Geocentrism 451 - The belief that the earth is the center of the solar system. Opposite of heliocentrism, which believes the sun is the center of the solar system.
  112. Maria Winkelmann 465
  113. Margaret Cavendish 465
  114. Tory Party 487
  115. Post Ivan Terrible period 510
  116. French aristos purchased titles called 515
  117. Brit nobility vs French nobility 515: b. British nobility was very wealthy and owned about one-fourth the land in the country. c. The French nobility had two types, those who had it before or those who had bought it. They were also separated from those who support the royal court and those who did not. They were exempt from many taxes. (Straight from my notes!!!!!)…I think.
  118. Euro Dominance Why in 16th-19thc 552
  119. Theory Universal Gravitation 454
  120. Ottoman Empires military impression 493
  121. Banalities and corvee 517
  122. French Control of which territories to promote econ profit… 553
  123. streltsy 501- Greedy in the case of the security of the tsar's power in Russia while Peter and Ivan V were reigning together.
  124. family economy as unit of production 522
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