Unit 1 Test

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Test Review

  • I'm placing page numbers after each of the topics I do as the book's index doesn't actually give the correct page numbers.

Multiple Choice

  1. 2nd Punic War (p. l) - Rome Vs. Carthage, Pt. Deux: Attack of the Pacederms (Also, Hannibal, not the Cannibal…but We'll get to him soon enough wont we?). Hannibal lead w/50k troops, Maximus lead an army to harras and lead the army away from Rome and Some other General went to Carthage and sacked it. Hannibal went back but was too late. Rome won and "ruled virtually all the western Mediterranean.
  2. Etruscans - Where? - Etruscans were the ancient Italians, possibly believed to have owned Rome for a good little time in it's beginning. (Not from the book, just general knowledge. I'm sure more information will be needed just giving you what I know at the moment).
  3. Gracchus Brothers (p. li)- Tiberius, interested in the welfare of the plebeians. Tried to do limited land redistribution program. Met with opposition and was assassinated by those protecting the wealthy land owners interests. Brother Gaius took senate spot and continued reforms, grain laws. Senate assassinated him too.
  4. Caesar Assassinated - Because he had to much power in the senates eyes.
  5. Hannibal - During the 2nd Punic war, he assaulted Italy w/ 50,000 Troops and Elephants
  6. Roman Architecture - Columns, and some arches, domes, concrete. Greatest of the age. The created aqueduct with arches to the main city for running water. The created roads that lasted for thousands of years. They had temples and forums for public area. Theaters, Coliseums, and publics baths.
  7. Saint Paul -Not first pope (that was St. Peter) Influenced St. Augustine who wrote commentaries on Paul's letter to the Romans
  8. Constantinople - Why? (p. lviii) - After the fall of Rome Constantine reunited the empire and created a new capital, Constantinople in the East. (Also see this.).
  9. Virgil (p. lii) - Most important of the Augustan poets. His greatest work = Aeneid = a long national epic. Possibly tangential information here, but in The Divine Comedy he is Dante's guide through hell and purgatory.
  10. Doctrine of Papal Primacy ("Supremacy") (p. lxii) - Put Pope at very top of the Church. Now he could intervene w/ secular matters while previously, the Church and the Secular world were separated. Doctrine enacted at time of imperial weakness. Power given through Matthew 16:18 = Christ rep. on earth. Power through excommunication and Interdict.
  11. Benedict of Nursia - Hermit and Renouncer. Established Monte Casino in 525 AD between Naples and Rome. Wrote "Rule of Master" and "Opus Dei". Basically set rules for monk hood. Discouraged Self-Mortification.
  12. Scourge of God - Attila The Hun - Attila first invaded Eastern Rome and then turn toward West Rome. He set his eyes on Italy. Attila the Hun came to conq' Italy and came to the doorstep of Pope Leo. Pope Leo persuaded Atilla to go away. This is the first time that the Church lead and became the Authority of Europe or something like that. I dont know, look it up you lazy bum.
  13. Charlemagne - Crowned - Who'd it help? - Pope Leo needed someone to help him because he risked being overthrown. Charlemagne met with him and didn't even expect to be crowned Emperor. (Again not directly from book, just what I know. Better than nothing for now.). Charlemagne helped the church by giving them land so they can tax people and he also helped try to rebuild a intellectual nation.
  14. Magna Carta (p. lxx)- 1215 - King John - Victory for Noblemen, Clergy, and townspeople over monarchy. Monarchy kept basic rights, but these people began to have more power. This was done, partly in response to King John's excommunication and the interdict placed upon England.
  15. First Crusade - 1095 - Pope Urban II - dual goals - liberating Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule. Started w/ speech given at Council of Clermont. Catholics won. Jerusalem in catholic hands.
  16. The Western Church -The ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH (Catholic Five), Pope is supreme and independent of the monarchs, eventually becoming more powerful than them too. The Eastern Othodox didn't like them because they had pictures and saints. They first showed power when Pope Leo persuaded Attila the Hun to leave. Had many great saints but like every thing else in history, it had its bad side. There were many who misuse their power and sold indulgence. There was a Great Schism (1378-1415) when there was at a time 3 Popes that was running the Church.
  17. Friars - Is a member of the mendicant orders. There are two classes, There are 4 "great orders"=Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, Carmelites. And there is also the lesser orders. Mendicant orders are religious orders that have taken a vow of poverty.
  18. Crusades (p. lxix) - Just crusades in general I'm guessing? - Crusades first started by Pope Urban II in 1095 as it says above, to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims. Relations with Palestine had broken down and there were a bunch of knights with nothing to fight. Pope gives a big speech that makes the people feel all patriotic inside, so "tens of thousands" of crusaders sign up (Of course they just wanted to help. It had nothing to do with the fact they were told to take whatever they wanted on the way, promised adventure, and oh yeah, carte blanch for all their sins if they died in battle. No questions asked ticket to heaven.). First one successful, but Jerusalem falls back into Arab hands. Later Crusades not as successful, but the purpose seemed to shift from obtaining Jerusalem to stimulating trade with the East anyway. Children's Crusade basically a whole bunch of kids led by (????) Peter the Hermit (????) going on a big long march, in hopes that the opposition couldn't bear slaughtering a bunch of kids. Technically they couldn't, but they didn't mind capturing them and selling them all into slavery. Hey it's not so bad. Ms. Munro made slavery back then sound pretty good. Possibly better lives than most of the kids had had back home. Ms. Munro should write brochures.
  19. Nobility - Status - Rome, They had money and power in the senate or influence in the senate. During the Middle ages, Nobility was clergy and Vassal of the lords/kings. They were Knights or advisor of the kings. There were many towns that rise up during the invasions of the barbarians. Many skilled craftmen became really wealthy and created rules in the town. They controlled the towns.
  20. Scholasticism (p. lxxiv) - Muslim scholars had preserved and translated many Greek works into latin, thus causing a scholastic revolution of sorts. Started w/ trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry,astronomy, and music). Later Logic and dialectic came to the forefront.
  21. Courtly (Courtney) Love - The Lord is an Old Fogey, so his Lady gives flowers to a Good Looking Knight instead. (Note: Under this context, flowers does not have any symbolic meaning and does not refer to anything outside of silly middle school romances that amount to nothing, outside of a good friend (usually), and should not be confused with anything else (SEX).)
  22. Amusements of Nobility -
  23. Avignon -Where the Avignon Popes resided after King Philippe IV of France had successfully transported the papacy to France.
  24. Council of Pizza - (Pisa) 1409 - Deposed the 2 popes and elected a new on. John XXIII. The other two refused to resign so there were 3 popes. A new council was formed which forced John XIII to resign. Back to 2 popes.
  25. Carthage-Extra Salt - The punic wars. Rome got pissed. Destroyed it and salted the earth.
  26. Italian Cities -> Roman Empire and Citizenship-Italians generally did not have a fuedal system and managed to keep a successful trade. Where many of the best crastmen and merchants stayed.
  27. Clovis - First king of the franks, unite all the frankish tribes under one ruler.
  28. Battle of Letchfeld - Magyars defeated. They assimilated, became Christian, and became the Hungarians
  29. Domesday Book - A census (basically) that William the Conquerer created upon conquering England to see what exactly he had conquered so he could tax it. (old english "dom" meaning accounting or reckoning)
  30. Excommunication and Interdicts -
    • Excommunication - Whoever gets this no longer receives communion (though back then normal folks didn't get it anyway) and is condemned. People aren't supposed to associate with this person either. Under the context of the test, it is when a pope excommunicates a King or noble, making said noble/kings popularity sink like a lead balloon zeppelin.
    • Interdict - Bars a specific group of people from receiving sacraments…damns them to hell to. In the context of the test, it is when a king or lord is excommunicated and all those who are loyal to them have an interdict placed on them…They dont want to go to hell, so they Kill a man (king or lord) to fix it.
  31. St. Augustine - Started concept of Original Sin. Wrote "City of God" which basically said that while individuals could sin, "the church as an institution could not"
  32. Cities and Byzantine Empire (1500) -The Roman empire was first split by Drocletrians (284-305), East and West. West still had trouble while the East flourished so Constantine (330bce) moved the capital to Constantinople. And this is believed to be the start of the Byz empire. Byz empire fell to the Turks in 1453. Constantinople is like the gateway from Europe to the East. There are a mix of culture because there are a lot of people that trade there. Thessaloníki was the second largest city after Constantinople.

Short Answer

  1. Urban II - Started the first Crusades. Big supporter of Gregorian reforms.
  2. Albigensians - - (a.k.a. Cathars) Um, I know they were gnostic, meaning (among other things) they believed heaven was a place where all souls blissfully reside, and when a baby is born it yanks a soul from heaven and back into ignorance. A bit of a cycle, if only we could all commit suicide. Innocent III comissioned a crusade against them because they were heretics and had to be stopped! only initial success
  3. Summa (Theologica) - St. Thomas Aquinas - (I know that Aquinas was the "big fat guy" who sat around with all of his belongings around him and just thought all day. Wrote the five proofs of God's existance that remain un-defeated in logic). reconciled Christian beliefs with western philosophy.
  4. Peter Abelard - Monk known for his scholastics. Wrote "Sic et Non" or "Yes and No" encouraged dialectic (juxtaposes 2 contradictory ideas and sought to resolve their conflict) Said that "systematic doubting" was good because it led to questioning which led to the TRUTH.
  5. Mayor of the Palace - Majordomo - Frankish Title
  6. Councilliar Movement - The Church debate on how to solve the 2 popes problem. 4 responses
    • Pontifical = Get A Pope to Resign. — WRONG!
    • Cessation = College won't elect until both popes are dead. — WRONG!
    • Compromise = Popes submit to arbitrator — WRONG!!
    • Council = decide w/ general council — Council of Pisa (see above)
  7. Romanesque - Roman Type Stuff-The renew idea of Arches in building, also developed from that idea is spines and vault to create a ceiling that is very high. Thick, heavey, stone walls with few windows. Kept out vikings better than the wooden churches. evolved into Gothic.
  8. Opus Dei - "Works of God" By St. Benedict of Nursia. What Monks should do: texts chanted, moderation, duty, work, lay communities
  9. Transubstantiation - The belief that when the bread and wine drunk during the Eucharist turns into Jesus' body and blood, respectively.
  10. Pilgrimage - There was a time when a Pope or something said that if one pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he will be removed from all sin. They travel from church to church to pray in front of a relic that is holy. There is a road that leads to churches that are only 10-20 miles apart. When one prays at those relics, sins or something will be lifted.

Essay Questions -

  1. Barbarian Attacks - This question will probably relate mainly to how they were important in affecting Rome. Rome went to the east, Byzantine, and the Germans started to rule Europe. Merovingians emerged, etc. Germanic tribes looking for safety. All different barbarians invaded the Roman Empire and weakened it. Vandals/Visogoth sacked Rome in 455. Illiterate and uneducated, began to assimilate, and brought down Roman intellectual achievements. More foreigners in the "Roman" army. With more foreigners came less motivation, and less patriotism. Partially credited with Rome's fall as a whole, though needless to say not the only theory out there.
  2. Feudal Society - Slightly similar to communism, except with one person above all that icky equality. Founded because the weak were dependant upon the strong. Basically, a prince or lord resides over his respected little locale, all living in area swear "feity" (Pretty much overall submission to him. More specifically not ever to harm him, and to do everything he asks. Also be a part of the military whenever needed) to that prince or lord. It is also required that everyone donate to the military whatever money or physical assistance they could when so told (this requirement referred to as the 'fief'). Manorial system sometimes practiced, however this was not exclusive to feudalism, just present in it.
  3. Benefice VIII & Phillip the Fair -
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