Unit 2 Test Review

Special Thanks to Shawn Bodden as he completed 95% of this Study Guide

Multiple Choice

  1. Alcabala - A 10% sales tax in Spain (helped in raising funds for the national government). Note: Mrs. Munro said that this was (also?) a tax on property.
  2. Court of Star Chamber - King Henry VII (Henry Tudor) of England instated this in order to make the court system more fair and equitable. It established a panel of councilors that acted as judges and had little motivation to accept bribes from the rich nobles whom had previously been able to buy their way out of most any punishment.
  3. Jacob Burckhardt - Wrote Civilization in the Renaissance in Italy in which he described the Renaissance as a transition to a period of more rational thought and the release of, “the full, whole nature of man.”
  4. Territorial Expansion - Spain and Portugal (3 cheers for Iberia!) were kicking but and conquering non-European lands around 1500 (the other nations, not as much). Spain headed over the Atlantic and started an empire in the Americas and Portugal focused on trade with India (around the Cape of Good Hope) although they did get modern Brazil as well.
  5. Battle of Bosworth Field - Battle where Henry Tudor returned to England and defeated the “usurper” King Richard III (whom the Tudors utterly defamed after retaking control of England).
  6. Special Techniques in Renaissance Art - Chiaroscuro, symmetry, linear perspective, vanishing point, implied lines, and realistic lighting (these are pretty self-explanatory, if you don’t know what they are…do some work yourself?)
  7. Civil Servants - Individuals appointed by the crown to help administer regions or provinces for the national government, they were supposed to make running nations easier although they did decentralize power as well.
  8. Lorenzo - A Medici dictator in Florence that sponsored a significant number of artistic and architectural projects in Florence (he was a blatant despot).
  9. Giotto - father of Renaissance painting, he painted religious subjects but with a much more natural and less abstract style than had previously been used by Medieval artists.
  10. Guelfs and Ghibellines - Propapal and Proimperial groups present in Italy that would often fight because, well, they wanted to. This fighting prevented allowed the various Italian city-states to grow relatively unchallenged since the emperor’s forces were busy fighting those of the Pope. This allowed the merchant oligarchies running the cities to gain power (although most fell to despotism by the fifteenth century; Venice didn’t, because it’s cooler than the rest, yeah, I said it.).
  11. Northern Renaissance v. Southern Renaissance - The Northern Renaissance was more religious and saw the creation of the printing press. The Southern Renaissance was first and was accompanied with the spread of Humanism. More should probably be added to this one.
  12. Golden Bull - the Golden Bull set up the system for electing the Holy Roman Emperor, namely, it set up an electoral college comprised of seven high ranking individuals which voted on who became emperor. The college also helped with administration in the Holy Roman Empire.
  13. Montezuma - In the halls of Montezuma…He was ruler of the Aztecs when Cortez came and pwned them. He originally gave gifts to Cortez because he thought he was a god but that made Cortez want more, so Cortez attacked the Aztecs and won. Cortez and his men killed Montezuma because he actually started to resist them rather than treat them like Gods.
  14. Unified Spain - YAY!!!!!! Isabela de Castilla y Ferdinand de Aragón se casan en 1469 (Viva España). (Jake's Note: Shawn!!!!) (¡Hah! Por fin paga haber tomado Espanol. Alemanes estúpidos. ~Patryk).
  15. Late Middle Ages - “Unprecedented chaos” but also the transition into the Renaissance.
  16. Printing Press - Johann Gutenberg, Northern Renaissance, it made books…more widely available and allowed for them to hold more content as well as be produced easier/quicker. Without this Protestantism didn’t have a chance.
  17. England and 100 years War - England and France were fighting again, England attacked but got beaten back by a sacred and/or insane peasant girl (depends on who you talk to…). They did win the battle of Agincourt however, because they had their super-cool longbows and the French nobles were dumb, seeking personal glory rather than working as a group. Thus an outnumbered army in enemy territory defeated a bunch of well-trained, mounted Frenchman, yay.
  18. Prince Henry the Navigator - Portugal, go play Age of Empires III. He supported the exploration of other areas and Portugal owes him for their naval success (hence, navigator), wasn’t too fond of Spain.
  19. Inflation - Spain found a pretty large amount of gold and silver in America…and helped contribute to sixteenth century European inflation!!!
  20. The Cortés – Spanish representative assembly (helped unite nobility and cities) but as the monarchs became more powerful they avoided using it (e.g. Isabella and Ferdinand rarely called it into session).
  21. Trade and Reformation - Gold and Spices were the prime goods that Europeans sought in other lands for trading purposes. The Portuguese set up a naval route around Africa to India where they were able to bypass the Arabs whom previously had a monopoly. Spain tried to find a shorter route to the Orient by heading west but instead discovered the Americas and lots of gold.
  22. Monarch Power 15th Century - Monarchs began to gain and utilize more power by overcoming the nobles and representative assemblies that had previously divided power. The monarchs began to appoint civil servants, maintain standing (national) armies, and levy national taxes.
  23. Colony Economy Latin America - Encomienda, trusteeship in which Spanish Conquistadors and settlers were given some land and some conquered natives (as slaves) in return for aiding in conquering said people and for settling the land (and, obviously, for retaining loyalty to Spain).
  24. Mercenary Soldiers - Many monarchs turned to mercenaries in order to increase the size and efficacy of their standing armies. The previously elite mounted noble depreciated in value while infantry and artillery became more important than ever. Mercenary soldiers proved to be more efficient than ‘feudal vassals’ which fought for ‘glory’ (but they could be dangerous to a sovereign that couldn’t pay them what had been promised).
  25. Holy Roman Emperor Election - Seven-member committee voted to elect the Holy Roman Emperor (The Electoral College founded with the Golden Bull). The members consisted of three archbishops (Mainz, Trier, and Cologne), the duke of Saxony, the margrave of Brandenburg, the count of Palatine, and the king of Bohemia.
  26. Humanists - They studied ancient Latin, Greek, and Church (the originals) works in hopes of a rebirth of ancient ideals. They advocated a liberal study program that encompassed poetry, grammar, rhetoric, history, politics, and moral philosophy. Using rationality instead of other things to arrive at answers.
  27. Mannerism - An artistic style developed as a reaction to the symmetry and order of High Renaissance Art that allowed the artist to better express him/herself through the abnormal (El Greco was one of mannerists masters). Elongated figures. Michaelangelo. Used to evoke a thought, or symbolize.
  28. Thomas More - The Best known English Humanist, he wrote Utopia which was a precursor to socialism. He was eventually executed by the King of England for not recognizing the Act of Supremacy (made King of England head of English Church rather than Pope) or the king’s marriage to Anne Boleyn.
  29. Crisis of Late Middle Ages - Political, Demographic, and Religious crises occurred during the Late Middle Ages. The Demographic was the immense blow to the population (black death, fighting, etc.). The political crisis was a degenerating level of ability of the political systems in Europe. Both of these began to be fixed during the beginning of the Renaissance (populations were growing once again and new monarchs were fixing and reforming their political systems nationalizing their respective countries). The last was not dealt with until the reformation and the counter-reformation; until these two events the religious conflict was hazy and unclear.
  30. Charles the Bold - The last Duke of Burgundy, under him Burgundy was the strongest Central European political power and threatened to dominate over both France and the Holy Roman Empire. These two nations united to defeat Burgundy (at Nancy, 1477) and Charles the Bold died in battle, ending the hope of a Burgundian Empire. Burgundy’s lands were divided between France and the Holy Roman Empire and left French King Louis XI free to take the throne. This defeat was the second hurtle the French overcame on the road to nationalism.
  31. Jacques Coeur - Oversaw the trade and industry of France, King Louis XI expanded both of these areas.
  32. Reuchlin Affair - Reuchlin was the foremost authority on Jewish writings and subjects but his works came under attack by anti-Semites intent on suppressing Jewish writings. Many German Humanists hurriedly aided Reuchlin in order to preserve academic freedom (rather than to support Jewish texts). A verbal battle ensued which produced a attire known as Letters of Obscure Men; it attacked monks.
  33. Exceptions to Nation States - The Holy Roman Empire was not a very well-developed entity and Spain didn’t last particularly long (but they sure were cool while they were in charge).
  34. Nobility Decline - Starting in 1450 there was a shift from the previously seen feudal style of rule to a more unified monarchy. This was largely due to the ‘alliance’ formed between the monarchs and important cities. As large cities aligned themselves with the king (who in turn appointed important businessmen to his staff rather than nobles and clergy) he gained more power and the other nobles lost some.
  35. Machiavelli - The Prince, he wrote about how one was to rule/conquer principalities and republics. Humanist who looked up to the Roman leaders of old, he hoped to benefit Italy and aid in an end to the fighting between the Italian city states. A kiss up apparently trying to get back to Florence and appease Medici
  36. Incan Conqueror - Francisco Pizarro, Conquistador, he founded Lima…conquered the Inca too.
  37. French Nationalism - Ha, what a crock…Alright, fine, they had to overcome two large divisions within France to become a single national entity. The first was the English Empire in France which was taken by France during the Hundred Years’ War and the second was the Burgundian threat which was destroyed with the death of Charles the Bold at the battle of Nancy (after which France divided the Burgundian lands with the Holy Roman Empire).
  38. Encomienda - Spanish trusteeship system used for settling the New World; it gave slaves and lands to those who participated in the conquest and were willing to remain in America (as well as stay loyal to Spain).
  39. Rights of Princes/Germany - The Princes of Germany were virtually sovereign rulers of their realm(s). They had partial executive power due to the Council of Regency.
  40. Mesta - Government-backed organization of sheep farmers in Castile, an example of the developing centralized economic planning appearing in Europe (they were some pretty lucrative sheep, mind you).
  41. Monarch Fund Raising - Monarchs were able to raise funds by charging a rent from those in their domain, by levying national taxes on certain products or directly on the people. Also, the selling of offices and loaning of high-interest government bonds were used to garner funds (The nobles however, were not taxed as they were often strong enough to resist such actions).
  42. Slavery and Renaissance - The Renaissance was when slavery really began to become popular. Most slaves came from regions that Europeans had conquered and those owning the slaves considered it merciful since otherwise they would have been executed. Slaves were generally either domestic or worked on plantations.
  43. Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio -
  44. Plato and Renaissance - The study of ancient Latin and Greek works was a crucial part of the Renaissance and the increase in interest of Plato’s works (particularly in Florence) was one of the most significant of these.
  45. Torquemada - Spanish Inquisition, cleansing the world one heretic at a time.
  46. Indulgence - This was a means through which one could buy their way out of Purgatory (or hell too, really) and into heaven. By purchasing an indulgence one payed off certain sins and thus made it less difficult to get into heaven (i.e. less time had to be spent in purgatory). Many of the Protestant groups cited this as one of the big issues with the church since they considered it corruption. Purchase your salvation or at least get out of purgatory quicker. (or purchase salvation of deceased loved ones)
  47. Antitrinitarians - They denied the existence of the trinity and believed that God was only a single entity (rather than three aspects of a single entity), they were still technically Christian even though this really went against a significant amount of church doctrine.
  48. Imitation of Christ (A' Kempis) - Meant to serve as a guidebook of sorts for monks and nuns but laity also read it with frequency.
  49. Luther and Sacraments - Still believed in transubstantiation
  50. Zwingli - Protestant Reformer, Switzerland
  51. Luther v. Zwingli - They really didn’t agree on multiple aspects of doctrine and their meeting resulted in Luther considering Zwingli and his sect dangerous and radical while Zwingli considered Luther little different than Catholic and thought that he had too much of Catholicism still in his sect. The main issue with Luther nad Zwingli was, I believe, the issue if christ was spirtual or bodily. Luther believe that where ever Christ was spritually, he was there bodily.
  52. Printer's Guild - One of several groups that actively sided with one of the sides during the Reformation, they aided the Protestants as there was a significant demand for paper/literature for propaganda (and some believed in it as well, I guess).
  53. Peasant Revolt and Luther - The peasants, taking numerous messages from Luther to heart, sought to gain better conditions for themselves but Luther didn’t support them even though they considered him a figurehead of sorts. Luther reportedly recommended the princes put down the rebellions with whatever force was necessary to return order; great guy.
  54. Protestant Reformers - Zwingli, Calvin, and Luther al started their own sects and others, such as Philip Melanchthon, aided in reforming education (he helped Luther). Erasmus didn’t support the reformation as he feared it would threaten the liberal arts.
  55. Protestant Reformation Challenged Renaissance - It challenged the Renaissance “tendency to follow classical sources in glorifying human nature and its loyalty to traditional religion.”
  56. Charles V and Protestantism - Charles V was busy with external threats and ruling quite a large realm so he decided to grant the German Princes the right to choose which religions were allowed in their provinces (giving them sovereignty over religious matters in their regions). Note: Charles wasn’t exactly fond of Protestantism (instructed Luther to recant) but he had a lot of more important stuff on hid mind, like Spain.
  57. Council of Trent - The Council of Trent was a council that the Pope Paul called together in order to help standardize Catholicism and deal with the Protestant threat. It was what started the Counter Reformation.
  58. Schleitheim Confession - Adopted by a Swiss Brethren Conference, February 24, 1527 and was a declaration of Swiss Anabaptist belief. Michael Sattler was the author of the seven articles. Ulrich Zwingli translated it into Latin.
  59. Spiritualists - Individualists that believed that the only authority was God’s spirit (hence the name) which spoke to everyone individually, they were critical of all dogmatic religion.
  60. 95 Theses - Martin Luther drafted a list of 95 faults that he found in/with the Catholic Church and then made them public. Luther's papers that he nailed to doors or just mailed them. Who knows. His theses condemning many of the catholic church's practices.
  61. Peasants and Reformation - The peasants saw their traditional rights gradually receding thanks to the various political leaders. As the Protestant reformation developed many peasants viewed it as a potential ally in increasing their social standing and/or gaining more rights.
  62. Justifications by Faith and Luther -
  63. Luther and Wartburg -
  64. 16th Century and Vernacular - Worship conducted almost entirely in the vernacular in reformation Churches.
  65. Modern Devotion - Sought a more personal piety and informed religious life, this movement was big on education and leading a full worldly life as well as a religious one.
  66. City Government -
  67. Theatines, Capuchins, Somaschi, Barnabites - Religious groups started as part of the Counter-Reformation, Theatines were supposed to help train church officials, Capuchins promoted the ideas of St. Francis, and the other two were meant to help aid those in war-torn areas in Italy.
  68. Lollards and Hussites - ‘Heretical’ sects hat were fought by the Church, their leaders were tried and burned putting a damper on the revolutionary spirit.
  69. Calvin and Geneva - Calvin helped transform Geneva into a Protestant refuge from persecution. He set up a strict yet (more or less) fair legal system and church structure which helped guide the city toward his ideals.
  70. Calvin and Strasbourg-
  71. Address to Christian Nobility (Luther) -
  72. Zwingli Reforms - Zwingli believed that if the actual scripture didn’t support something it should not be part of Church doctrine. Zwingli was given authority in deciding which things were backed by the Bible and became he center of the Swiss Reformation.
  73. Melanchthon -
  74. Reformation Women - Women didn’t benefit as much from the Reformation as would be expected but they did get some (pretty small) concessions, ex. It was illegal for men to beat their wives in Geneva.
  75. "Elect" - Guessing this is from Calvinism, predestination and such, but I didn't look up the page number so I could be wrong. If you are part of the "elect" then you're predestined to go to heaven. That's basically it.
  76. "One King, Once Church, One Law" - Catholicism’s approach during Counter-Reformation, its proponents sought to maintain monarchy and order.
  77. Politique - Rulers that promoted political unity over the importance of religion (so that they could achieve more (through compromise) and be overall more successful).
  78. Calvin and Anti-transubstantiation - Calvinists did not believe that the Eucharist was actually part of God while the Lutherans did. This bred conflict between them in addition to the Catholic Church.
  79. Albrecht Wallenstein - A powerful mercenary that fought during the 30 years’ war and won numerous victories over the Protestants.
  80. Autonomous States in Germany - Germany was comprised of about 360 autonomous states that each had their own policies and taxes. They governed themselves to an extent which resulted in a significant decentralization of power.
  81. Congregationalists - Extremist Puritans that sought to develop fell autonomy for the congregations that they set up, they were opposed by Queen Elizabeth I who told them that they could either return to the Church of England or be exiled/executed.
  82. Religious Wars and Intellectual Policy -
  83. Apology William of Orange - Dutch, one of the more important leaders of the Netherlands’ rebellion against the Spanish, once again, check out Age of Empires III. He was a politique
  84. Peace of Augsburg - Officially made the idea of the prince deciding the religious policy of his region a reality; this still refused to recognize Calvinism or Anabaptists as Christian however.
  85. Spanish Fury - An army of Spanish mercenaries, following their leader’s death, ran rampant in the city of Antwerp looting and killing 7,000 people.
  86. Elizabeth I and religion - Elizabeth succeeded Mary I to the throne of England, even though she was declared illegitimate by Henry VIII. She was a protestant, which caused new tensions among the catholics and protestants. She tried a moderate approach to English religion, staying away from both radical Protestants and Catholics. She started with her Thirty-Nine articles and her Act of Supremacy which ended all of the anti-Protestant reforms created by Mary I. Many believed Mary, Queen of Scots, was a more legitimate heir to the throne, but Elizabeth retained her power. After a scandal in Scotland Mary fled to England, but was later executed which caused uproar among the Catholics. Things really didn't start to thrive until after the defeat of the Spanish armada. Elizabeth sought middle route in order to avoid a large Catholic or Protestant rebellion but she also faced assassination attempts from catholic extremists since they did not want a Protestant on the throne. Oh, and she was a politique.
  87. Catherine de Medici - Catherine was a Catholic and reportedly the cause of the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre because she convinced the king a Protestatn coup was afoot and that he should execute several important protestant leaders, so he did, and then ‘near-civil-war’ broke out. She also gained a lot of power in France while her three young sons were king (consecutively).
  88. Mary I and Phillip II -
  89. Phillip II and Conquer - The Spanish success in Southern Europe did not hold up as much in the North and the resistance of the Netherlands (primarily due to religious reasons and the various Dutch cities’ inclination towards autonomy) proved very unpleasant for Spain and its overall strength as a nation.
  90. Spain and Netherlands - The Northern Dutch cities banded together under the Protestant (Lutheran and Calvinist) banner to resist Spanish control, the local nobles and urban artisans became increasingly unhappy with the Spanish authorities and eventually open revolt ensued resulting in the independence of the Netherlands from the Spanish.
  91. Spanish Strength - All Mighty - And then they lost a couple battles, maybe some important ones, and their power began to dwindle, but that’s not their fault, stupid storm. England was lucky.
  92. Henry of Navarre - Henry IV (King of France) He was a Huguenot that Henry III allied with. Upon Henry III's death, Henry IV ascended to the throne. He became catholic to promote peace in France, and that worked. After the fighting ended, he passed the Edict of Nantes.
  93. Perpetual Edict - Provided for the withdrawal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within twenty days, signed by Don Juan (John) after his defeat at the hands of a united Dutch resistance (The united Dutch opposition didn’t last too long, as 5 months later the southern towns once again began to side with the Spanish under the union of Arras).
  94. Mary, Queen of Scots - Catholic member of the royal family that was eventually executed for attempting to (help) murder Queen Elizabeth I.
  95. Society of Jesus - The Jesuits, they believed in loyalty to the Church and self-discipline and were some of the ‘braver’ priest/missionaries as they would go out and preach in the areas most others shied away from (e.g. The Americas), Ignatius of Loyola founded the order.
  96. Benefice System - Ranks in the church would be sold to the highest bidder and residency requirements were handily overlooked (i.e. high ranking clergy could do basically whatever they wanted, e.g. concubines).
  97. Criticism of Church (How?) - The laity was becoming more educated about the world and long distance communications became more available and widespread. Books!!!!
  98. Tetzel and 95 theses - Tetzel was the big-time indulgence salesmen, “when in the dish a coin rings, into heaven another soul springs,” or whatever…anyway, this really ticked off Luther and is what prompted him to write the 95 Theses and make them public.
  99. Magisterial Reformers - This is the idea that the Protestant Reformers were successful not only because of the popularity of their message but also because they worked within the rules of their local laws and from the aid of their political leader.
  100. Loyola - Ignatius Loyola, he founded the Jesuits/Society of Jesus. Before doing so he was a knight (caballero according to the book, but that just means knight, I think they’re just trying to show off) but he was severely wounded so he stopped fighting and started reading Christian books, thus his founding a Christian order.
  101. Marbug Colloquy - Zwingli and Luther met to discuss their differing ideas (it was an effort to help standardize the Protestatn Reformation in Germany) but they ended up leaving quite unhappy and without making much progress (and Luther denouncing Zwingli as a heretic, *cough*hypocrite*cough*).
  102. Protestant Reformation conflict Nation vs. Town - With all of that protesting going on, the towns felt like they could work to get more rights/independence for themselves (and be self-governed) so the idea of a single Nation was hurt in those areas that had strong Protestant concentrations (I guess that just goes to show…).
  103. Peace of Augsburg - repeat
  104. Reformation in Germany and Switzerland - First location of Protestant Reformation, the divisionary spirit of these areas was simply furthered with many cities aiming to become their own sovereigns (basically), mixed results.
  105. Anabaptist - Believe that baptism only counts if one is a consenting adult. They are the ancestors of the Mennonites.
  106. Protestant Reformers and Celibacy - Well, they didn’t do it, er, that is, they did, they did ‘do it’, but not that, what? They weren’t celibate, there (they said that marriage was an important aspect of life, and that it relieved one from sexual frustration).
  107. Council of Trent - Catholic church bashed the protestants while trying to rid itself of some of its corruption. They kept indulgences and such though. The Council of Trent was a council that the Pope Paul called together in order to help standardize Catholicism and deal with the Protestant threat. It was what started the Counter Reformation. (Note: They didn't keep indulgences, wtf are you smoking? Council of Trent was trying to reform the Church, why would they want to keep something that started the Reformation. Srsly. The council abolished some of the most notorious abuses and introduced or recommended disciplinary reforms affecting the sale of indulgences. )
  108. Edict of Nantes - Created by Henry IV. After promising to the Huguenots that he would allow religious freedoms, Henry IV created this Edict which fulfilled this promise. It allowed Huguenots freedom of worship, assembly, work in public office and universities, and they could keep their fortified towns (Huguenots were still wary of Catholics).
  109. William of Orange's Religion - He was Catholic but converted to Lutheranism in 1567. Once the Bartholomew’s Day Massacre occurred, he turned to Calvinism.
  110. Henry III and Henry IV -
  111. Calvinism - Started by John Calvin. The thing that's talked about most is the predestination stuff. God knows the future and thus he knows whether you're saved or not. Those who are saved are called the "elect". The "elect" are usually seen with better lives while poor people and such are looked down upon because they would be treated better by God if they were to be saved.
  112. Spanish Armada - Spain went to attack England with a large navy. The navy wasn’t exactly up-to-date however and it was hit by a large storm. The diminished and slower Spanish navy got (unsurprisingly) trounced by the awaiting English fleet and a significant number of Spanish ships were sunk and captured, this marks the change of naval dominance from Spain to England.
  113. "Cuius regio, eius religio" - The phrase meaning that the local German Prince would choose the areas religious policies.
  114. Catherine de Medici (repeat)
  115. Gaspard de Coligny - One of the political leaders of the French Protestant reformation, he was a Huguenot sympathizer (mainly due to political reasons), he planned to kidnap Francis II but that didn’t go over as planned. Admiral De Coligny was a respected Protestant leader who was the target of an assassination attempt a day or so later of Henry IV wedding. He survived but died anyways when the Massacre started.
  116. Prince of Conde - This was the other big Huguenot supporter see the one right before this, it all applies.
  117. Diet of Worms - Meeting to deal with several political issues in the Holy Roman Empire but the important thing is that it was where Martin Luther presented his ideas to the Emperor (Charles V) and was told to recant (he didn’t).
  118. England and Protestantism - It started out as catholic but became largely Protestant with the Act of Supremacy (King is head of Church of England) and under Elizabeth I the rights of Protestant were largely guaranteed (or at least not lost).
  119. Pacification of Ghent - The union of all of the Netherlands’ cities against the Spanish (after their initial victory it should be noted that the Southern Cities once again began to side with Spain largely due to religious reasons).
  120. Spain v. Turk - Spain, led by Don Juan (John), fought the Turks at Lepanto and sunk over 1/3 of their ships, killing 30,000 Turks in the process. This granted the Spanish temporary Mediterranean supremacy, w00t.
  121. Calvinism v. Catholic - Calvinists and Catholics both held uncompromising doctrines and sought to expand their spheres of influence, so, with the Counter-Reformation they butted heads a lot, is that it? I don’t know, I guess it is…
  122. Huguenots - French protestants who were at war with the Catholics for a number of years. See Henry of Navarre/Edict of Nantes
  123. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre - Catherine de Medicis tried to have Gaspard de Coligny assassinated. This failed and she convinced Charles that the Huguenots were going to try to overthrow him. She said only the execution of Protestant leaders would save him. On August 24, 1572, Coligny and 3000 Huguenots were killed. Over this and the next 2 days about 20,000 total died.
  124. The Compromise - This was the Dutch national covenant that swore to resist the Inquisition and the Council of Trent’s policies.
  125. Mary I - She was an ugly, insane Queen that never seemed to be in a room with quite enough lights or…wait, was that just a historically inaccurate Hollywood film. I guess it would be accurate to talk about how she worked to return the Catholic faith to England as the primary faith (died too soon to really make it happen).
  126. Phillip II and Netherlands - Some bad policies and unfortunate defeats led to the Spanish presence in the Netherlands being pretty much expelled, thanks largely due to significant foreign aid to the Dutch.
  127. John Knox and Elizabeth - he aided in the Protestant-izing of England but they didn’t get along (he always monitored Mary I and gained Elizabeth’s support for that, but previous propaganda he had written had made her mad and she never really forgave him).
  128. Richest Part of Hapsburg -
  129. Peace of Augsburg - Repeat again
  130. German Mortality and 30 Years War - Lots of fighting, four major parts composed of Catholic successes at first, Protestant successes next and finally just a bunch of foreign soldiers running rampant.
  131. "Beard of Spain King" - Sir Francis Drake bombarded Cadiz and destroyed a good number of Spanish ships.
  132. Puritan Grievance - The Puritans had two main grievances which were: 1. The church of England still looked Catholic and 2. The English church claimed it was the real successor of Rome even though it was under the authority of the King/Queen of England.
  133. Treaty of Westphalia - This ended the 30Years’ War. All fighting within Germany ended, the religious rights granted at the Peace of Augsburg were reestablished and the Calvinists were recognized as real Christians. This treaty defined subdivisions in the Holy Roman Empire causing the division of Germany to be perpetuated.
  134. Phillip II - Until the defeat of the Spanish Armada he was the single most powerful man in Europe (because he was king of Spain).
  135. Medici - The Medici family carved its own niche in the circle of nobility in Europe, it started in Florence but eventually got its members as Pope, Queen of France, etc. They "sponsored" many artist during the renaissance and kept most of the painting safe when other people tried to attack them.
  136. Dante - The Inferno; vernacular, vernacular, vernacular.
  137. Marsilius of Padua - He wrote Defender of Peace which argued for the separation of worldly and spiritual laws and governments (i.e. the pope wasn’t supposed to be ruling). Questioned the Pope’s ability to excommunicate rulers and place an interdict on any place or people.
  138. The Prince -101 in how to rule with a iron fist…
  139. Mirandola - One of the supervisors of the Florentine Platonic Academy.
  140. Reuchlin Affair - Reuchlin was the foremost authority on Jewish writings and subjects but his works came under attack by anti-Semites intent on suppressing Jewish writings. Many German Humanists hurriedly aided Reuchlin in order to preserve academic freedom (rather than to support Jewish texts). A verbal battle ensued which produced a attire known as Letters of Obscure Men; it attacked monks.
  141. Council of Trent - The Council of Trent was a council that the Pope Paul called together in order to help standardize Catholicism and deal with the Protestant threat. It was what started the Counter Reformation.
  142. Act of Supremacy - Act passed by the parliament which said that the King was head of the Church of England.
  143. Charles V - He was pretty powerful, he passed the Peace of Augsburg. There is more about him further up on this guide, this is a quasi-repeat.
  144. Treaty of Westphalia - Repeat
  145. Duke of Alba - He was head of the force sent out from Spain to ensure no revolts in the Netherlands (beyond the opposition already occurring), he was really mean and killed lots of ‘heretics’ however. He quickly became hated and wound up worsening the situation in the long (or even moderately short) run.
  146. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre - Repeat
  147. Jiminez de Cisneros - The Cardinal that was responsible for driving out all of the non-converting Moors in Granada.
  148. Civic Humanism - Applying humanism to civics.
  149. Politiques - Rulers that promoted political unity over the importance of religion (so that they could achieve more (through compromise) and be overall more successful).
  150. Julius II - Sponsored Michelangelo and the painting of the Sistine Chapel (as well as his own tomb).
  151. Cranmer - Protestant Leader that became a close advisor of King Henry VIII and married him to his second wife.

Short Answer


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