Unit 4 Test
  1. Which thinker is most closely connect with the idea of full exploitation of nature for the good of humankind? Adam Smith
  2. Joseph II believed that religious toleration would result in make his subjects more loyal.
  3. The philosophes on the whole displayed traditional views toward women.
  4. The Encyclopedia set forth the most advanced critical ideas in religion, government, philosophy and also provided information on ship construction, canal building, manufacturing, improved agriculture,; represented a plea for freedom of expression.
  5. Robot were taxes in kind set by the peasantry, services due a landlord from a peasantn, abolished by Joseph II.
  6. Most philosophes believed that religion should be transformed into a humane force of tolerance.
  7. Rousseau criticized most enlightenment thinkers on the grounds that they they cared about materialism and progress but not virtue or happiness.
  8. Rousseau wrote which of the following: the social contract.
  9. The Encyclopedists believed that antiquity rather than the Christian centuries should provide the intellectual and ethical models for civilizations, the good life lay in the application of reason to human relationships, the future welfare ofhumankind depended on living at peace with their neighbors. All of the above
  10. Spinoza teaching seemed to portray the world as: finite and subject to control by the human spirity.
  11. With the publication of the encyclopedia enlightenment thought was diffused over the continent.
  12. Enlightenment thinkers had faith in the power of rational criticism
  13. Enlightenment philosophes spoke with two voices regarding Islam.
  14. The philosophes particularly admired great Britain because of its employment at enlightenment and its stability
  15. With regard to economic measures teh philosophes generally supported less involvement, larger farms, sound agriculture
  16. 49 is d
  17. 52 is d
  18. During the enlightenment the church (status quo) - intellectual justification for social and political status quo?
  19. The Slogan "crush the infamous thing" refers to Voltaire on the church
  20. Isaac Newton influenced social though by (nature rational) indicating the rationality of nature in his writings.
  21. Enlightened Absolutism describes the enlightenment era rotional.
  22. In the Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu admired which constitution as the wisest.
  23. In the view of philosophes, Christianity (intolerance) - promoted, through arguing over "obscene" doctrines.
  24. Persian Letters by Montesquieu satiricle French society and contemporary institutions; reforms.
  25. Majority of philosophes were (mc profs) - Middle Class Professionals
  26. Issac Newton encouraged Europeans to (direct study) - approach the study of nature directly and to avoid supernaturalism philosophes.
  27. Writers and critics who fostered change during the enlightenment were called philosophes
  28. Locke's essay on Human Understanding tabula rasa, experience shapes nature. Suggested possibility of reform.
  29. The reforming economists who prized agriculture above all were called physiocrats.
  30. Major intellectual forerunner of the Enlightenment Locke and Newton
  31. Cesare Beccaria became influential writer after publishing On Crimes and Punishments
  32. Although they disagree on many things the fundamental principal all philosphes agreed on (reforming society for human liberty) (and religion, thought etc.)
  33. Which monarch was first servant of the state Frederick 'the Great" of Prussia
  34. Who was the jewish Socrates - Medelson
  35. Rosseau launched an assault on the - 18th century selfishness and "cult of theindividual."
  36. Joseph II of Austria ( Central Monarchy and was unsuccessful with Magyars )
  37. Locke stated each human entered world as Tabula Rasa (means what) blank slate.
  38. Primary social condition for virtuous life according to philosophes (relig toleration) religious toleration….
  39. Encyclopedia project led by Denis Diderot
  40. A Smith advocated laissez-faire
  41. The enlgihtened Absolutism of 18th century rulers described as rational though, absolutist, central gov.?
  42. Montesqueieu wanted (monarchy reformed) - aristocratic bodies that coult limit the king
  43. Result of enlightenment (Spirit of innovation and improvement characterizes west)
  44. Montesquieu can be described as a political conservative
  45. Laissez Faire economics argued for limited government interference in economic life
  46. Rousseau asked the fundamental question "what constitues the good life?"
  47. In Vindication of Rights of Women, Mary Woolstonecraft opposed Rousseau with progressive thought/knowledge
  48. The author of the Declaration of the Rights of Women Olympe de Gouge
  49. Among the cashiers presented at the meeting of the Estates General equal rights!, unified measurements for trade, free press.
  50. Civil Constitution of the Clergy (Blunder, Joins church to state) - caused opposition between French church and state
  51. Levee en Masse (conscription) by Com. of Pub. also imlemented taxes and production for military purposes
  52. Largest new propertied group to emerge from the revolutionary turmoil was the peasants
  53. Sans Coullottes were shortless! workers whose aims were radical reforms.
  54. Citizen Capet refered to Louis XVI.
  55. September Massacre refers to the Paris Communes
  56. The Estates General organized itself into a new legislative body called the National Assembly
  57. The famous Tennis Court Oath was taken after 3rd estate left estates general and formed national assembly.
  58. With regard to the National Constituent Assembly, Louis XVI gave in allowing it to be made, but attempted to undermine it.
  59. Who favored the declaration of war 1792 (Girodist and Louis XVI)
  60. Composition of the National Assembly 3rd estate had twice as many and votes per head
  61. The reason for the tremendous French Debt wasteful spending, American Revolution, Seven Years War
  62. The Clergy generally supported which groups aristocracy.
  63. 1,2,3 estate represented which groups in society clergy, nobility, and the rest, respectively
  64. The 3rd represented theoritically the rest of France but really primarily wealthy members of commercial and professional middle class.
  65. The San Coullotes favored (hungry and inflation) Sought relief from food shortages and rising prices (wanted price controls)
  66. Spirit of 3rd Estate was best displayed to Abbsieyes entitled "What is the Third Estate?"
  67. Estates General was called in order to "aurhorize a tax" but really gain power for the aristocrats.
  68. The emegrees were French nobles who moved to neighboring contries to escape persecution
  69. 1788 parliament of paris ruled that voting should proceed (order) conducted by order, not by head
  70. The provincial parliament which rejected new tax assessments - controlled by aristocracy and setup as spokesmen of nation against assertion at monarchial powers
  71. The war 1792 against Austria (radicalized) - it radicalized the French Rovlution.
  72. The economic policy of the National Constituent can be described as reformist but opposed to guilds.
  73. The fall of Robespierre was motivated by self-preservation of associates
  74. Thermadorian reaction began in 1794 consisted of destruction of terror and institution of a new constitutional regime.
  75. Financial prob of French Government lay inability to tap French wealth
  76. At meeting of National Constituent, Jacobines pressed for a republic.
  77. One of the most permanent achievements of the National Constituent assembly was 83 depts. of provincial government
  78. Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798 (Islam and study of Arabic)
  79. Who best reflects romantic ideas (Immanuel Kant)
  80. Constitution of year 8 (repub theory, checks balances, established rule of Napoleon, council of state) - checks and balaces, Napoleon, council of state, republic theory.
  81. Napoleon greatest weapon in conquest (mobilized French nation conscripts)
  82. Led to reforms in Prussia in age of Napoleon - Nationalism from threated Germany (Napoleon)
  83. After battle of Nations in 1813, Napoleon - abdicated and was exiled to Elba.
  84. Battle of Nations where Leipzig
  85. Napoleonic code maintained that all privs based in birth gone.
  86. Congress of Vienna supported a position that France shouldn't necessarily be punished and conservative: restore old boundaries.
  87. Napoleon born in Corsica and the lower nobility
  88. Before returning to Paris to become Consul in the directory Napoleon's military campaign had failed in Egypt.
  89. The statement "confidence from below, power from above" reflect the ideas of Abbe' Siayes
  90. The key person in agreement in regard to land division at Congress of Vienna was Talleyrand
  91. Great German Literature, Faust Goethe
  92. After defeat in Russia Napoleon crushed in1815 by Wellington, Prussia (Blucher) at Waterloo
  93. Victory of Nelson at Trafalgar in 1805: British Naval Supremacy, Britian gains Gibraltar I believe.
  94. 100 days refers to Napoloen's Second try
  95. Prussian Social reforms of Baron Von Stien and Count Von Hardenburg… - ideals of Fr. Rev. but not pop rev itself.
  96. Napoleonic Code (short of radical reform) -
  97. The Mountain was French, political party, Jacobins.
  98. Members of National Constituent Assembly wished to create a (constitution monarchy)
  99. Cahiers Ce Doleances complaints to king from estates
  100. Law of Prairail - Tribunal could convict subject without needing evidence.
  101. Fall of Bastille - First rederiction of rev. by regular guys and distrubance.
  102. French Govts greatest problem on eve of revolutions. - Finances

As always, I did mine on MW, so I'm just going to copy what I got, which is little for now. Hopefully, there is no school tomorrow and I can finish the review.

1. Adam Smith
2. Make his subjects more loyal
3. Displayed traditional views toward women
4. On ship construction, canal building, manufacturing, improved agriculture. Freedom of expression
6. Abolished
7. Idk, maybe they cared about materialism and progress but not virtue or happiness
8. Social Contract
9. Intellectual and ethical models for civilization.
10. I don’t know, idk, maybe eternal and human actions as unfree or inevitable.
11. French gov initiated as series of attempts at press censorship.
12. –
13. Two face
14. They have an ideal government
15. –
16. –
17. –
18. –
19. Philosophes that looked to the existing monarchies. They favored neither Montesquieu or Rousseau.
20. British system, parliament and independent court.
21. –
22. Used Islamic culture as a foil to criticize his own European culture
23. –
24. –
25. Philosophes
26. –
27. –
28. –
29. –
30. –
31. –
32. –
33. –
34. –
35. –
36. –
37. Diderot
38. Laissez-faire, free market, capitalism
39. –
40. –
41. By this time, I believe whatever is in () is the answer so I don’t think I need to type it.
42. –
43. Government to keep their hands off economy. Free market.
44. Rousseau raised the more fundamental question of what constitutes the good life.
45. Brought Rousseau before the judgment of the rational enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge. She oppose certain policies of the French revolution.
46. Olympe de Gouges
47. –
48. –
49. –
50. -
51. Working-class, extremely radical. Kept the revolution moving.
52. –
53. Led by Paris commune. Rumors spread that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats and priests were plotting with foreign invaders. Many priests and bourgeoisie, and nobles were killed
54. National Assembly
55. June 17. Third estate swore to remain together until a new constitution.
56. Recognize the assembly, dissolved the estates general and brought troops to Versailles
57. –
58. –
59. Money spent by the queen and king. American Revolution.
60. Nobles?

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